Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA) imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8). Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively) and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001). The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research.
Citation: Jie Ni, Paul Cozzi, Tzong-Tyng Hung, Jingli Hao, Peter Graham, Yong Li Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth In An Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique doi:10.1016/j.tranon.2015.11.011.
Received: 28 August 2015, Accepted: 10 November 2015, Available online: 3 March 2016
Copyright: © 2016 he Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Neoplasia Press, Inc. This is an open
access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
This study was supported by NHMRC Career Development Fellowship, Surgical & Urological Research Foundation, Cancer Research Trust Fund at Cancer Care Centre, and Prostate and Breast Cancer Foundation. We thank Julia Beretov from Anatomical Pathology, SEALS, St George Hospital, for technical support in histopathology. We also thank Carl Power from Biological Resource Imaging Laboratory, University of New South Wales, for technical support in animal model establishment and imaging.